Nederlands Holocaust in Europe Auschwitz

Victims

There are no longer records of exactly how many victims were murdered in Auschwitz. When the Soviet army advanced towards the camp at the end of 1944, the nazis destroyed a large part of the camp archive. From the number of train transports, it is estimated that around 1.3 million people were murdered there. The four large crematoriums in Auschwitz-Birkenau came into operation only after the holocaust was past its peak. The extermination of Jews began in 1941 and during that year the nazis murdered around 1.1 million people in Eastern Europe. In 1942, they murdered an additional 2.7 million, of which approximately 200,000 were murdered in Auschwitz. In 1943, the year that the Auschwitz crematoriums began to operate, the number of victims dropped to 500,000 (of which 50% were murdered in Auschwitz). At the end of 1943, the SS dismantled a number of big extermination camps (Sobibor, Belzec, Treblinka). Auschwitz was the only camp that remained operative for the purpose of receiving and murdering the 'remains' of the Jewish communities in occupied Europe. Between May and July 1944, 440,000 Hungarian Jews were deported to Birkenau and gassed. That was the last and at that point the only remaining large Jewish community in Europe.


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  1. Until 1943, most of the prisoners were photographed in three poses with shaven heads wearing the striped camp uniform. The photos were marked with a number, with which information about the camp, the nationality of the prisoner, and the reason of imprisonment was recorded. Source: Auschwitz – The residence of death
  2. A number was tattooed on the arm of prisoners in the camp. People changed from being a person with a name to a number.
  3. The belongings of victims being sorted in Auschwitz-Birkenau. Photo taken by the SS, 1944. Source: Auschwitz – The residence of death
  4. Emaciated and starving survivors of a concentration camp. This photo was taken by an American military photographer.
Glossary
persecution
mass murder
perpetrators and victims
camps
auschwitz
sobibor
after 1945
timeline
guest book
early history
organisation
auschwitz i
auschwitz-birkenau ii
auschwitz-monowitz iii
perpetrators
victims
death march
liberation
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