Nederlands Exposition in Auschwitz Persecution

First anti-Jewish measures

Registering the Jews

A condition for the annexation of the Netherlands into the Greater German Reich was aryanisation of the Dutch population. At the time that the first anti-Jewish measures were taken people were unaware of their consequences. On 1 July 1940, Jewish employees of the Air-raid Defence Service were released from their duty. The members of this service had to declare in writing that they were not Jewish: a precursor to the Aryan declaration. By the end of July, ritual slaughtering was prohibited; this measure mostly concerned Orthodox Jews. In early October, it was prohibited to appoint Jews or promote them in government positions. All civil servants were forced to sign the Aryan Declaration. By the end of November, Jewish civil servants were fired. By the end of October 1940, Jewish businesses had to be registered. This was a preparation for taking-over Jewish property.
On 10 January 1941, Jews were forced to register. They were isolated step by step. Violence against Jews had begun earlier. In June 1940, members of the National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands (NSB) started smashing Jewish shop windows and places of entertainment where many Jews gathered. These acts of violence only increased after 10 January 1941.

Personal story: Cleveringa
LichtbakAfbeelding 2Afbeelding 3Afbeelding 1
  1. Residents of the capital reading the announcements of the Air-raid Defence Service* on the wall of the Stock Exchange on the Damrak, Amsterdam, 13 May 1940.
    Photo by Marius Christiaan Meijboom, NIOD Collection, Amsterdam
  2. The German occupier implemented strict blackout regulations. No light was to be visible from houses and streets were hardly illuminated.
    NIOD Collection, Amsterdam
  3. Using colourful posters the population was urged to observe the blackout properly, 1941.
    Designed by V. Stein, NIOD Collection, Amsterdam
jew in the netherlands
german invasion
going into hiding
sinti and roma
dutch people in auschwitz
guest book
first anti-jewish measures
protests against the persecution of jews
isolating jews
jewish labour camps
jewish star
the jewish council
press and propaganda
civil administration

riots in amsterdam
registration, looting, and tracking
propaganda and resistance

forced labour