Nederlands Exposition in Auschwitz Persecution

Isolating Jews

Ordinances

Jews were more and more isolated in the Netherlands. They were no longer allowed to go to cinemas, parks, and swimming pools. Jews were no longer allowed to work for non-Jews. Jewish doctors were dismissed, children were expelled from non-Jewish schools. They could not enter public buildings, such as museums, zoos, and libraries. All the prohibitions were published in the Joodsche Weekblad (Jewish Weekly Paper), a publication of the Jewish Council. The publications also urged the Jews to obey these prohibitions. As of late September 1941, Jews were no longer allowed to be outside between 8 o'clock in the evening and 5 o'clock in the morning. By early November they were no longer allowed to change their place of residence.


Violence
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  1. The Amsterdam Jewish quarter, summer 1941.
    An amateur photo, NIOD Collection, Amsterdam.
  2. A long list of anti-Jewish measures led to total isolation of Jews from social life. Going to swimming pools, shops, cafes, parks, and other public places was prohibited to Jews.
    Unknown photographer, Rotterdam municipal archives collection
  3. Members of the WA (assault teams) of the National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands (NSB) forced café owners to hang signs with the text ‘Jews are not welcome’. This was a precursor to the implementation of the official signs with the text: ‘Prohibited to Jews’, Amsterdam, January 1941.
    Unknown photographer, NIOD Collection, Amsterdam.
  4. In the ordinance of 12 March 1941 the German authorities appointed administrators (Treuhändler or Verwalters) to all businesses in which Jews had a certain amount of influence. In fact, these administrators took over the business. The administrator of Zwanenberg’s packing houses hung a sign on the outside wall making it clear that Jews were no longer welcome.
    Photo by Charles Breijer, NFM Collection, Rotterdam
Glossary
floorplan
introduction
jew in the netherlands
refugees
german invasion
persecution
resistance
going into hiding
sinti and roma
deportation
dutch people in auschwitz
guest book
quotes
first anti-jewish measures
protests against the persecution of jews
isolating jews
jewish labour camps
jewish star
the jewish council
chronology:
press and propaganda
civil administration

chronology:
riots in amsterdam
registration, looting, and tracking
propaganda and resistance

chronology:
looting
forced labour