Nederlands Exposition in Auschwitz Persecution

Isolating Jews

The violence increased. In February 1941, the Jewish Council was set up by order of the Germans. Jews were now deployed to carry out the anti-Jewish measures. In the course of 1941, freedom of movement for Jews became increasingly limited by countless ordinances. Jews were no longer allowed into cinemas, cafes, markets, swimming pools, parks, museums, zoos, playgrounds, and public libraries. Jewish children were expelled from non-Jewish schools and Jewish students were no longer welcome at universities.

Violence
Ordinances

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  1. Temporary closure of the Amsterdam Jewish quarter, February 1941.
    After the fights in the Jewish quarter, in which a WA* member, H. Knoot (NSB*), died, barbed wire fencing was put up at various places in the Jewish quarter and bridges were raised. In the background: the raised bridge at Kloveniersburgwal.
    Unknown photographer, NIOD Collection, Amsterdam.
  2. Razzia in the Jewish quarter, Amsterdam, 22 February 1941. As a retaliatory measure against the riots in the city, 600 members of the 'Ordnungspolizei' (German public order police) hermetically closed off part of the Jewish quarter. Hundreds of young Jewish men were violently taken to the Jonas Daniel Meijer square.
    Unknown photographer, NIOD Collection, Amsterdam.
  3. Rounded-up Jews at the Jonas Daniel Meijer square, Amsterdam, 22 February 1941.
    A day later the second razzia took place. In total, more than 400 Jews were deported to the Schoorl internment camp.
    Unknown photographer, NIOD Collection, Amsterdam
  4. Caption photo 1: German policemen hastenpush rounded-up Jews into the trucks, Amsterdam, 22 February 1941. They were deported to the German concentration camp Buchenwald via Schoorl.
    Unknown photographer, NIOD Collection, Amsterdam.
  5. Jews rounded up during the razzia at the Jonas Daniel Meijer square at a roll call in the German concentration camp Buchenwald shortly after arrival on 28 February 1941. Three months later many of them had died. Except for one man, Max Nebig, who was hidden by his camp mates, all the other men were deported to the German concentration camp Mauthausen in Austria. None of them survived the camp. For four yearyears Max Nebig remained in hiding in a TB barrack in Buchenwald and managed to survive thatthis way.
    Photo from the German SS* paper Das Schwarze Korps, NIOD Collection, Amsterdam
  1. The Amsterdam Jewish quarter, summer 1941.
    An amateur photo, NIOD Collection, Amsterdam.
  2. A long list of anti-Jewish measures led to total isolation of Jews from social life. Going to swimming pools, shops, cafes, parks, and other public places was prohibited to Jews.
    Unknown photographer, Rotterdam municipal archives collection
  3. Members of the WA (assault teams) of the National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands (NSB) forced café owners to hang signs with the text ‘Jews are not welcome’. This was a precursor to the implementation of the official signs with the text: ‘Prohibited to Jews’, Amsterdam, January 1941.
    Unknown photographer, NIOD Collection, Amsterdam.
  4. In the ordinance of 12 March 1941 the German authorities appointed administrators (Treuhändler or Verwalters) to all businesses in which Jews had a certain amount of influence. In fact, these administrators took over the business. The administrator of Zwanenberg’s packing houses hung a sign on the outside wall making it clear that Jews were no longer welcome.
    Photo by Charles Breijer, NFM Collection, Rotterdam
Glossary
floorplan
introduction
jew in the netherlands
refugees
german invasion
persecution
resistance
going into hiding
sinti and roma
deportation
dutch people in auschwitz
guest book
quotes
first anti-jewish measures
protests against the persecution of jews
isolating jews
jewish labour camps
jewish star
the jewish council
chronology:
press and propaganda
civil administration

chronology:
riots in amsterdam
registration, looting, and tracking
propaganda and resistance

chronology:
looting
forced labour

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